Bicycle Statistics: Usage, Production, Sales, Import, Export

Manostaxx

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SOURCE: http://www.ibike.org/library/statistics-data.htm

Hard facts on bike usage, production, sales, imports, exports and trade are hard to come by. Many of the best statistics are buried in papers that are presented at conferences such as VeloCity, ProBike and the Transportation Research Board (TRB). Sometimes these papers are published after the conferences but it can then be difficult to get a hold of the proceeding, and then they aren’t very well indexed so you have to go through all of all of them to extract anything that might be useful to you.

We do not have the staff to be able to research this thoroughly. If you are able to find a good source of information please let us know so that we can share it with others.

Tracking Global Bicycle Ownership Patterns, Journal of Transport & Health, Dec 2015. Related article.

Bicycle Frame Market – Global Trends, Market Share, Industry Size, Growth, Opportunities, and Market Forecast – 2015 – 2022

Report on the economic potential of bicycles in developing countries.

Bicycling in Copenhagen infographic with history and statistics.

Bike Commuting In a Motorized World infographic (mostly USA data).

Separated Bike Lanes = Safer Streets for Everyone infographic (mostly USA data).

World Bicycle Production, 1950-2007 (graph)

Bicycle production fell to 79 million units in 1998, 25 percent below the peak of 107 million bicycles in 1995.  Source: State of the World 2001, World Watch Institute, Washington DC USA

Percent of Trips by Travel Mode (all trip purposes)
Country bicycle walking public transit car other
Netherlands 30 18 5 45 2
Denmark 20 21 14 42 3
Germany 12 22 16 49 1
Switzerland 10 29 20 38 1
Sweden 10 39 11 36 4
Austria 9 31 13 39 8
England/Wales 8 12 14 62 4
France 5 30 12 47 6
Italy 5 28 16 42 9
Canada 1 10 14 74 1
United States 1 9 3 84 3
Source: John Pucher, Transportation Quarterly, 98-1 (from various transport ministries and depts., latest avail. year)

 

Bicycle mode split by city:
Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Toulon, Metz and Reims, France less than 2 percent
Rennes, Bordeaux, Toulouse and Nantes, France 2-5 percent
Grenoble, Lille, Orleans, and Valence 5-10 percent
Strasbourg, France 15 percent
Copenhagen, Denmark & Basel, Switzerland 20 percent
New Delhi 22 percent
Moscow, Russia 24 percent
Tokyo, Japan and Odense, Denmark 25 percent
Erlangen, Germany 26 percent
Dhaka, Bangladesh 40 percent
Beijing, China 48 percent
Groningen, Netherlands 50 percent
Shenyang, China 65 percent
Tianjin, China 77 percent
Source: State of the World 2001, World Watch Institute,
Washington DC USA

Bicycle mileage per person and killed cyclists per mileage in ten countries; Source: WALCYNG, Report1. no.4, 1997, Lund University Sweden and Factum Austria.  Bicyclists’ safety increases with increased bicycling in developed countries..

Bicycle Kilometres and Killed Cyclists per kilometre Cycling kilometres per person per day Killed cyclists per 100 million kilometres
GREAT BRITAIN 0.1 6.0
ITALY 0.2 11.0
AUSTRIA 0.4 6.8
NORWAY 0.4 3.0
SWITZERLAND 0.5 3.7
FINLAND 0.7 5.0
GERMANY 0.8 3.6
SWEDEN 0.9 1.8
DENMARK 1.7 2.3
THE NETHERLANDS 3.0 1.6

By Wittink, Roelof; I-ce Interface for Cycling Expertise: Planning for cycling supports road safety; In: Sustainable Transport, Planning for walking and cycling in urban environments, ed. Rodney Tolley; Woodhead publishing in Environmental management, ISBN 1 85573 614 4; 2003

World Bicycle and Automobile Production, 1950-2000

World Bicycle and Automobile Production, 1950-2000
Year Bicycle Production Auto Production Auto Fleet
Million Units
1950 11 8 53
1951 11 7  
1952 12 6  
1953 13 8  
1954 14 8  
1955 15 11 73
1956 16 9
1957 17 10
1958 18 9
1958 19 11
1960 20 13 98
1961 20 11
1962 20 14
1963 20 16
1964 21 17
1965 21 19 140
1966 22 19 148
1967 23 19 158
1968 24 22 170
1969 25 23 181
1970 36 23 194
1971 39 27 207
1972 46 28 220
1973 52 30 236
1974 52 26 249
1975 43 25 260
1976 47 29 269
1977 49 31 285
1978 51 31 297
1979 54 31 308
1980 62 29 320
1981 65 28 331
1982 69 27 340
1983 74 30 352
1984 76 31 365
1985 79 32 374
1986 84 33 386
1987 98 33
1988 105 34
1989 95 36
1990 92 36
1991 99 35
1992 102 36
1993 102 34
1994 105 35
1995 106 35
1996 98 37
1997 92 39
1998 76 38
1999 96 40
2000 104 41
2001 97
2002 104
Source: Historical data series compiled by Worldwatch Institute, Vital Signs 1996, 2002, 2005 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996, 2002).

As can be seen from the figures, global automobile production very nearly caught up to bicycles in terms of total numbers by the late 1960’s, but since then bicycle production has far outstripped that of automobiles and now stands at better than a 3:1 ratio; so while bike sales may be steady or declining in America over the past few years, they continue to make enormous gains in other parts of the world–particularly Asia where China alone is now producing more bikes (40+ million per year) than all the world’s automotive output.

Note also that while the global automobile fleet has expanded from less than 150 million to nearly 500 million over the past 30 years, during that same time over 2 billion bikes were manufactured, and the number of utilitarian/transportation cyclists around the world has grown to over 1 billion (of which China now represents about half the total).

Bicycle and other cycle, not motorized production, by Country (latest year available)
Country Year Unit Value Footnotes
Algeria 2004 Thousand Units 2.7
Armenia 2008 Thousand Units 0.4
Azerbaijan 2007 Thousand Units 200
Bangladesh 2006 Thousand Units 27.638 1
Belarus 2008 Thousand Units 250.282
Belgium 2003 Thousand Units 173.3 3
Brazil 2008 Thousand Units 2850.427
Bulgaria 2008 Thousand Units 474.453
Cameroon 1995 Thousand Units 0.801
Canada 1997 Thousand Units 912.59
Central African Rep. 1995 Thousand Units 0.65
Chad 1995 Thousand Units 2
Chile 2008 Thousand Units 79.228
China 2008 Thousand Units 63748.7
Colombia 1999 Thousand Units 54.109 4
Croatia 2003 Thousand Units 0
Cuba 2008 Thousand Units 53.3
Czech Republic 2008 Thousand Units 304.634
Denmark 2008 Thousand Units 120.445
Egypt 2000 Thousand Units 3
El Salvador 1997 Thousand Units 2.421
Finland 2008 Thousand Units 23.005
France 2003 Thousand Units 12372
Georgia 1996 Thousand Units 0.951
Germany 2008 Thousand Units 1866
Greece 2004 Thousand Units 159.711 6
Hungary 2008 Thousand Units 356
India 2007 Thousand Units 11397
Indonesia 2002 Thousand Units 2064
Iran(Islamic Rep. of) 2000 Thousand Units 185 7
Iraq 2008 Thousand Units 0.576
Ireland 2004 Thousand Units 0
Italy 2004 Thousand Units 3982.579
Japan 2008 Thousand Units 2200.807
Kazakhstan 2007 Thousand Units 0
Korea, Republic of 2005 Thousand Units 2.249
Kyrgyzstan 2008 Thousand Units 0
Latvia 1999 Thousand Units 2.098
Lithuania 2008 Thousand Units 392.73
Mexico 2008 Thousand Units 1601.6
Mozambique 1997 Thousand Units 0
Myanmar 2007 Thousand Units 53.878
Netherlands 2007 Thousand Units 971 9
Pakistan 2008 Thousand Units 535.519 1
Peru 2005 Thousand Units 23.29
Poland 2008 Thousand Units 1432.4
Portugal 2006 Thousand Units 705
Romania 2007 Thousand Units 277
Russian Federation 2008 Thousand Units 1434
Serbia and Montenegro 2003 Thousand Units 2.544
Slovakia 2008 Thousand Units 56.958
Spain 2001 Thousand Units 491
Sweden 2008 Thousand Units 154.7724
Turkmenistan 1997 Thousand Units 0
Ukraine 2008 Thousand Units 381.292
United Kingdom 2007 Thousand Units 0
Viet Nam 2008 Thousand Units 1689
Footnote
1 Twelve months ending 30 June of year stated.
2 Provisional or estimated figure.
3 Incomplete coverage.
4 Including tricycles.
5 Including delivery tricycles.
6 Excluding Prodcom code 35.42.10.30.
7 Factory employing 10 or more persons.
8 Government production only.
9 Sales.
Source: Industrial Commodity Statistics Database | United Nations Statistics Division

It is difficult to compare these numbers because many countries don’t report every year and some countries don’t report at all.  They also don’t reflect trends in specific countries, which may be towards increased production or decreased production.  Trend information is available by filtering for a specific country at http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ICS&f=cmID:49921-0

Bicycle Production of Selected Countries, 1990-2000
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Million Units
China 31.9 36.8 40.3 41.0 42.0 41.0 38.0 30.0 23.1 42.7 52.2
France 1.5 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.9
Germany 3.9 4.9 4.6 4.1 3.5 3.2 2.9 2.8 3.2 3.2 3.2
India 8.4 8.8 9.0 9.9 10.5 11.5 11.3 11.0 10.5 11.0 11.0
Indonesia 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.0 2.3 3.0 2.8 2.6 N/A
Italy 3.5 3.6 4.1 5.2 5.8 5.3 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.3 3.2
Japan 8.0 7.5 7.3 6.9 6.7 6.6 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.6 4.7
Korea 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.2 N/A 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 N/A
Malaysia 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 N/A
Taiwan 6.8 7.7 7.5 7.9 9.2 9.7 7.4 11.9 10.1 8.3 7.5
Thailand 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.8 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.5 N/A
United Kingdom 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2
United States 5.6 7.6 8.9 7.7 7.3 8.8 8.0 6.0 2.5 1.7 1.1
N/A indicates not available.
Source: Bicycle Retailer & Industry News Directory, from Cycle Press, European Bicycle Manufacturers Association, Japan Bicycle Promotion Institute, Bike Europe, and Bicycle Retailer & Industry News.

 

United States Bicycle Market, 1991-2000
Year Total Shipments Imports Domestic Production
Million Units
1991 15.1 6.5 8.6
1992 15.4 6.3 9.1
1993 16.8 7.1 9.7
1994 16.7 7.0 9.7
1995 16.2 7.2 9.0
1996 15.5 7.5 8.0
1997 15.2 9.8 5.4
1998 15.8 13.8 2.0
1999 17.5 16.3 1.2
2000 20.9 20.2 0.7
Source: Bicycle Retailer & Industry News Directory, from The Bicycle Council, U.S. Department of Commerce, and Bicycle Retailer & Industry News.

 

Selected Bicycle Promotion Initiatives Around the World
Compiled by Janet Larsen, Earth Policy Institute, July 2002.
City Country Initiative
Australia Plans to double bicycle use by 2004 by developing a network of trails, end-of-trip facilities, improving bicycle safety.
Santiago Chile 30-40 kilometer bike path pilot project currently funded by the Global Environment Facility could grow to 1,000 kilometers over 10 years.
Bogotá Columbia Some 300 kilometers of bicycle paths have been completed; all cars are banned from 120 kilometers of the city’s main streets on Sundays and holidays; referendum was passed to prohibit car circulation during rush hours by 2015.
France The French Environment Ministry, together with the Transportation Ministry, created a national bicycle plan in 1994, granting near $2 million for 10 bicycle promotion projects based on the Dutch model.
Germany Over 31,000 kilometers of paths and lanes exclusively for bicycles.
Tokyo Japan Cost of owning a car is high: fuel taxes double those of the United States account for almost half of the price of gas; automobile tax levies and vehicle inspection fees amount to an average of almost $2,000 annually.
Nagoya Japan Employer contributions for commuting by bicycle doubled in 2000, while allowances for automobile commuters were halved.
Netherlands First country to establish an official national bicycle policy; currently almost 19,000 kilometers of paths and lanes exclusively for bicycles.
Lima Peru Low-interest loans available to low-income families for the purchase of the bicycle are helping the city to meet its goal to increase percent of trips by bicycle from 2 percent in the mid 1990s to 10 percent. Over 60 kilometers of bike paths have been built along major traffic corridors.
United States Almost $3 billion in federal funding allocated for bicycle and pedestrian projects between 1998 and 2003 under the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century.

UKDOT Journey Times Survey 1996

(ISBN 0 11 551926 2), published by the Stationery Office and featured in DOT Press Release 106 of 28.5.96. The findings include:-

  • For journeys entirely within Central London, the average time was 33 minutes by car compared with 18 minutes by bike. By public transport the journeys took, on average, 31 minutes by rail and 38 minutes by bus. Taxi journeys took 20 minutes on average.
  • The average direct distance (as the crow flies) for the short radial journeys was 3.9 miles, and for the central journeys 1.7 miles. However, the actual distances traveled were much longer. For example, the average on-road distance for short radial journeys by bike was 5.2 miles, and by car was 5.6 miles for central journeys these distances were 2.3 miles for bikes and 2.7 miles for cars.
  • The proportion of time spent “in-vehicle” varied considerably by mode; from 97% for short radial bike journeys to only 30% from central rail journeys

The report includes comparisons with the same journeys surveyed in 1993. For all modes, except the bike, the 1996 journeys were slower on average than the 1993 journeys. The changes reported are subject to a number of influences (such as choice of routes and parking places, and worse weather in 1996), in addition to changes in congestion.

  • For short radial journeys, the fastest made in 1996 was bicycle, and the slowest was bus, as in 1993, but bicycle was slightly faster in 1996.
  • In contrast to other modes, there were overall reductions in time for both short radial and central bike journeys, by 8% and 5% respectively.

This is interesting firm evidence of the increasing advantages of bikes over other modes as congestion continues to worsen.  (Hugh McClintock, 1996)

Mode Space Requirements

One single-occupant car requires 75 times the amount of urban space as a pedestrian, 20 times that of a cyclist, and 13-40 times that of rail transit per unit of personal movement achieved (Professor John Whitelegg, 1993)

True Costs of Road Transport

In 1993 Professor David Pearce and colleagues analyzed the external societal costs of UK road transport and came up with an annual figure of £22.25 billion (US$ 35.6 billion).

In “Blueprint Five: The True Costs of Road Transport” they have revisited their findings and made substantial upward adjustments. There are much higher levels for noise (£3 billion annually) and congestion (£19 billion). New information about the danger of particulate – especially PM10’s from diesel – has led to a substantial upward revision in the cost of air pollution. Taken in total, Pearce and company now believe, the annual cost to society imposed by road transport to be £46-53 billion.

“Blueprint Five” is published by Earthscan at £10.95. [CTC Cycle Digest] (1998)

1996 US State Traffic Satety Stats

Compiled by Riley Geary, from data of the National Center for Statistics and Analysis, a part of
the NHTSA.  They now have a state-by state summary of traffic safety statistics
at:  http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/departments/nrd-30/ncsa/STSI/USA%20WEB%20REPORT.HTM
[Note the meaning of these numbers generated a lively discussion on several list servers!]

$B Deaths $/D /VMT /Pop %P %B %>.10 %Spd SB:D% SB:U% 10yr 3yr
AL 2 1143 1.7 22 26.8 8 0.5 34 37 29 54 + +
AK 0.3 80 4 19 13.2 10 5 43 38 31 69
AZ 2.5 993 2.5 24 22.4 16 2.9 35 29 39 63 . ++
AR 1.4 615 2.3 22 24.5 4 0.8 26 37 29 48 . +
CA 15.6 3989 3.9 14 12.5 20 3.1 31 35 60 88
CO 1.8 617 2.9 17 16.1 12 1.5 34 42 37 59 . +
CT 2.1 310 6.8 11 9.5 16 1.3 39 28 27 62
DE 0.4 116 3.3 15 16 17 2.6 29 22 55 68 .
DC 0.5 62 8.1 19 11.4 33 1.6 35 47 32 58 + +
FL 8.9 2753 3.2 21 19.1 20 3.9 29 25 41 64 . +
GA 4.3 1574 2.7 18 21.4 10 1 28 23 35 62 . +
HI 0.6 148 4.3 18 12.5 20 3.4 29 36 53 80 + +
ID 0.5 258 2 20 21.7 5 1.2 27 39 36 54 . +
IL 6.4 1477 4.3 15 12.5 14 1.9 35 32 37 64 +
IN 3 984 3 15 16.8 8 0.6 27 21 39 62 . +
IA 1.4 465 3 17 16.3 5 2.4 34 13 50 75 . .
KS 1.3 491 2.5 19 19.1 4 0.4 30 27 32 54 . +
KY 2.1 841 2.5 20 21.6 6 0.8 28 27 32 55 . .
LA 2.7 901 3 23 18 14 2 40 20 41 67
ME 0.7 169 4 13 13.6 10 0.6 29 44 40 50
MD 3.4 608 5.6 13 12 21 1.3 23 15 58 70
MA 4 417 9.6 8 6.8 18 1.7 32 26 26 54
MI 5.5 1505 3.7 17 15.7 13 2.2 32 25 52 71 +
MN 2 576 3.5 13 12.4 8 1 31 27 43 64 . .
MS 1.3 811 1.6 27 29.9 6 0.6 34 17 22 46 + .
MO 3.1 1149 2.7 19 21.4 8 0.3 39 40 31 62 . +
MT 0.4 200 2.1 21 22.8 6 1 34 44 40 73 .
NE 0.9 293 3 18 17.7 6 1.4 26 30 34 63 . +
NV 1 348 2.9 25 21.7 20 1.7 38 33 38 70 ++ +++
NH 0.4 134 3.3 12 11.5 13 2.2 27 21 42 57 +
NJ 6.6 818 8.1 13 10.2 22 2.2 26 10 40 67 +
NM 1.1 481 2.3 22 28.1 13 0.4 42 36 40 85 . +
NY 13.2 1564 8.4 13 8.6 24 2.9 24 24 46 74
NC 4.7 1493 3.1 19 20.4 11 2.5 29 36 56 82 +
ND 0.2 85 2.5 13 13.2 5 0 44 52 19 43
OH 7.1 1395 5.1 14 12.5 9 1.2 26 25 41 62
OK 1.7 775 2.2 23 23.5 8 0.6 29 44 23 48 + +
OR 1.4 524 2.7 17 16.4 12 1.5 31 26 58 85 .
PA 5.4 1469 3.7 15 12.2 15 1.7 32 36 40 71
RI 0.4 69 6.4 10 7 23 2.9 38 35 19 58
SC 2 930 2.2 23 25.1 11 1.9 33 47 43 61 +
SD 0.4 175 2 22 23.9 6 1.1 32 21 34 59 + ++
TN 3 1239 2.4 21 23.3 8 0.4 33 26 32 63 . +
TX 11.2 3741 3 20 19.6 12 1.6 42 39 47 74 . ++
UT 0.9 321 2.8 16 16 10 2.8 18 28 36 60 . +
VT 0.2 88 2.4 14 14.9 9 1.1 32 54 33 69
VA 3.3 875 3.8 12 13.1 13 1.1 31 27 34 70 .
WA 3.2 712 4.5 14 12.9 13 2 39 34 48 82 . +
WV 1 345 2.9 14 18.9 7 1.2 33 29 43 58
WI 2.5 761 3.3 14 14.8 7 1.7 36 27 40 61 . +
WY 0.3 143 2 19 29.7 6 2.1 30 40 29 72 +
US 150 41907 3.6 17 15.8 13 1.8 32 30 42 68 (+)
$B — Economic costs of all traffic collisions (in billions of $)
Deaths — All fatalities caused by traffic collisions
$/D — ‘Cost’ per traffic fatality (in millions of $), where a higher
number indicates a larger relative % of nonfatal collisions
and generally higher insurance rates
/VMT — Traffic fatality rate per billion vehicle miles traveled
/Pop — Traffic fatality rate per 100,000 population
%P — Pedestrian % of traffic fatalities
%B — Bicyclist % of traffic fatalities
%>.10 — % of traffic fatalities involving blood alcohol content >=.10
%Spd — % of traffic fatalities involving excessive speed, according
to state police evaluations
SB:D% — % of motorist fatalities where victims used seat belts
SB:U% — ‘Observed’ % of motorists using seat belts
10yr — Long-term (10-year) trend in traffic fatalities
3yr — Intermediate-term (3-year) trend in traffic fatalities
— = substantially lower
– = somewhat lower
. = neutral
+ = somewhat higher
++ = substantially higher

Figures also appear in many of the documents listed in the IBF’s Bicycle / Development / Sustainability Bibliography / Reading List

 

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