Lean KPI’s – Key Performance Indicators and performance metrics

Manostaxx The text that follows is owned by the site above referred. Here is only a small part of the article, for more please follow the link SOURCE: http://www.leanmanufacture.net/kpi.aspx Lean KPI’s and Process/performance metrics help managers, engineers and process improvement leaders in the following: -Determining the current performance of the system or process being evaluated […]

List of Quality Management Standards and Frameworks


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SOURCE: https://advisera.com/9001academy/knowledgebase/list-of-quality-management-standards-and-frameworks/

Author: Mark Hammar

The ISO 9000 Family of Standards

The ISO 9000 family of standards has three documents, with one additional supplementary document attached to the family. ISO 9000, ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 compose the family of ISO 9000 documents; ISO 19011, guidelines for auditing management systems, is attached, as it is the auditing requirements document used to audit an ISO 9001 quality management system.

ISO 9000: This is a standard that is referenced in ISO 9001, ISO 9004, AS9100 and many other documents regarding a quality management system. ISO 9000 is the first document in the ISO 9000 family of standards and has two main purposes. Firstly, it is used to define the many terms that are used throughout the quality management system standards. Secondly, it describes the fundamental quality management principles that are behind the ISO 9001 standard for implementing a quality management system. It is not, however, a document containing requirements against which a company can certify its quality management system; this is available through the ISO 9001 standard.

ISO 9001: The most commonly used set of requirements for designing a QMS, it includes requirements for developing and implementing a quality management system based on improving customer satisfaction. The requirements are aligned in a PDCA improvement cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle) of Planning for the work of the QMS, Doing the work of the QMS, Checking the work of the QMS against requirements and Acting to correct any problems that occur which will feed back into the next round of planning. For more information on how this works, see Plan-Do-Check-Act in the ISO 9001 Standard. ISO 9001 provides the information necessary for a company to implement a quality management system, and a QMS certification against ISO 9001 is recognized worldwide.

To find out more about the ISO 9001 quality management system standard, see What is ISO 9001 and ISO 9001 Certification.

ISO 9004: This is a standard that can accompany ISO 9001 for implementing a quality management system, but is not necessary to do so. This document is designed to provide guidance to any organization on ways to make their quality management system more successful. Unlike ISO 9001, ISO 9004 is not intended for certification, regulatory or contractual use. This means that you cannot certify your quality management system to ISO 9004. It also means that the use of ISO 9004 is not intended to be mandated as a legal or contract requirement. The standard is, however, a good reference to turn to for ideas in how to make your implementation of ISO 9001 more effective and successful. For more information on this standard, see ISO 9004, which explains the structure in greater detail.

ISO 19011: This is also a standard published by the international organization for standardization, and includes the requirements for auditing a management system. The standard defines all the requirements for an audit program, as well as how to conduct successful audits. It is used as a resource to train anyone who audits quality and environmental management systems, and the auditors who certify that companies have met the requirements of standards such as ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and the like are trained using this standard.

Other Common Quality Management System Standards

Below are some of the more common quality management standards that are specialized for certain industries. These systems, like ISO 9001, provide requirements that can be used to design and create a quality management system for a company.

AS9100: This is a standard that is based on ISO 9001 and has additions designated for use in the Aerospace Industry. The additions include such main topics as Risk Management and Configuration Management. A QMS can be certified by a third party to comply with this standard. For more, see AS9100: What it is and how it relates to ISO 9001.

ISO 13485: This is a standard published by the ISO organization for use by companies that want to design a QMS for medical devices and the requirements for regulatory purposes surrounding them. A third party can certify a company’s QMS to this standard.

ISO/TS 16949: This document includes requirements for the application of ISO 9001 for automotive production and service part organizations. The requirements include all additional QMS requirements agreed by the main automotive manufacturers to accompany ISO 9001. In addition, though, each main automotive customer that a company works with has an addendum to the TS 16949 requirements that are specific to that customer. A QMS designed using these requirements can also be certified against them.

MBNQA: The Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award recognizes U.S. organizations for performance excellence. The award has a set of requirements against which a company could design and assess a QMS built around the criteria for promoting business excellence. Apart from external assessments to attain the award, there is no ongoing certification against these requirements.

Quality Frameworks that support Quality Management

The following items are quality concepts that support an organization in pursuing improvements and quality excellence, but they are not designed as sets of requirements against which to create a quality management system, and a QMS cannot be certified against these guidelines.

Lean: The core idea is to maximize value by eliminating waste. The main concept is that anything that adds cost to a product, but not value, is waste and should be controlled or eliminated. Lean concepts are used to improve processes by removing waste, thus making them more efficient. The concept of lean (also referred to as lean manufacturing, lean enterprise or lean production) was derived in the 1990s mostly from the Toyota Production System, which used a concept of the reduction of “seven wastes” to improve customer value.

Six Sigma: This is a set of tools and techniques used for process improvement by focusing on using the statistical outputs of the process to improve the process. It is used in many organizations to support the QMS by helping to improve processes, but Six Sigma does not define a QMS. The tools of Six Sigma were developed by Motorola in 1986 as a means of improving the quality of processes and their outputs by identifying and eliminating the causes of defects.

TQM: Total Quality Management consists of practices designed to improve the process performance of a company. The techniques help improve efficiency, problem solving and standardization of processes. These techniques are used to aid in quality management, but do not provide a framework for a Quality Management System. The concept of TQM was originated in the early 1980s and became widespread near the end of that decade. It was mostly supplanted by ISO 9001, Lean and Six Sigma by the late 1990s; however, many of the concepts are still used in conjunction with these other philosophies.

Turn Off Lights as You Leave


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SOURCE: https://www.ge.com/digital/blog/12-manufacturing-tips-brilliant-2017-tip-5-turn-lights-you-leave

In heavy industrial operations, energy costs are major factor in the profitability of a plant. All that power that it takes to move components down the line and provide a work environment that is safe and productive for all factory workers is important. Lighting is a major expense for an automotive plant, for example. Also, it takes time to turn industrial lights on and off. If you looked at a curve of the power demand for factory, it would look like a sine wave – a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation.

During the morning, they start powering up all the machinery in the operations to a peak, and at the end of the day, they start powering things down.

What if we could get more deliberate on how we manage power in a factory? What if light could be a raw material or part that we control from an availability point of view within the production environment?

Consider this story about an automotive company that did exactly this.

The company connected lighting to the conveyor system. It is possible today to install software that allows the complex orchestration of people, equipment, and material on a production line. This also allows the ability to look up and look down the line, and to look back in time and to look forward in time to make sure that the right parts are at the right station at just the right time. Also, if things change on the line, like the removal of a car body for rework because of a quality issue, the orchestration of parts can automatically be adjusted based on that real-time event. So, all the knowledge of how the line operates can be in that software system.

In a separate system, all the lighting is controlled. You can’t reliably put motion detectors in a plant, because even if somebody is not in a location, there still needs to be light for the operation to happen. Also, if the motion detector failed to operate, it could cause a safety problem. Furthermore, by having lights on, it indicates that something is going on in that area. But it is possible to tie together the production monitoring system with the lighting system and apply some logic where under certain conditions, like a machine not operating and no worker activity in that area for the last 30 minutes and no production activity scheduled for that area in the next 30 minutes, the lights can be turned off in that area.

Once you have this automatic system in place, the shutdown of the plant at night can happen more quickly because it automatically detects when power is no longer needed for lighting and turns it off more immediately rather than waiting for human intervention to do so. So, the power use curve starts to look more like a square wave rather than a sine wave, saving a great amount of expense in energy.

A plant could save 20% in energy cost by employing a system like this.

Also, by gathering large amounts of information on the operating parameters, analytics can be applied to find even more information about how the plant is operating, so the right actions can be taken. One example may be the electricity demands vary based upon a correlation such as time of year or weather conditions. Operating instructions and policies can be changed to help make the plant more productive under these conditions. A combination of execution and analytics is the key to making further cost improvements and improving the bottom line in a production organization.



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Filosofias estratégicas ou práticas de produção como Kaizan, Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, Gestão da Qualidade Total e Melhoria Contínua, são utilizadas por muitas organizações de forma a ajudar na melhoria do processo produtivo, a aumentar a produtividade e a manter o nível competitivo na economia global em que estamos hoje inseridos. Apesar de serem conceitos variáveis, cada uma destas práticas utiliza KPIs – Key Performance Indicators (indicadores chave de desempenho) – para aceder, analisar e controlar o processo de produção. Mesmo quando uma organização não tem implementadas iniciativas formais de melhoria contínua, ainda podem ser realizados ganhos de eficiência por comparação através das técnicas de gestão visuais desses processos. Este white paper analisa como a gestão visual pode aumentar a produtividade através da alavancagem de 7 KPIs que podem ser utilizados para a monitorização da grande maioria das linhas de produção.


O QUE SÃO KPIs (indicadores chave de desempenho)?

KPIs são diversas variáveis que uma organização utiliza para aceder, analisar e controlar o processo produtivo. Estas medições de performance são frequentemente utilizadas para avaliar o sucesso em relação aos objetivos e metas definidos.


A Gestão Visual é o processo de exibir informação crítica como os KPIs que estão especificamente relacionados com a produção, eficiência e qualidade. Através da exibição destes dados no layout de produção todos os colaboradores têm uma noção mais precisa dos níveis produtivos e tendem a empenhar-se mais em elevadas performances. A Gestão Visual também fornece informação útil e acionável que permite que os supervisores/responsáveis consigam fazer uma melhor monitorização da performance e determinar, em tempo real, as zonas que precisam de intervenção. Os resultados globais auxiliam no aumento da produtividade em todas as partes da organização através do aumento da eficiência, da qualidade e do tempo de operação.



Os KPIs tendem a variar conforme a organização. Seguidamente apresentamos a lista com os 7 KPIs mais frequentemente utilizados ao nível da produção automatizada:

1. Contagem

Uma das métricas essenciais no layout da fábrica relaciona-se com a quantidade de produto fabricado. A contagem (boa ou má) normalmente refere-se tanto à quantidade de produto produzido desde a última mudança de máquina como à soma da produção de todo o turno ou semana. Muitas empresas comparam o trabalho individual e a mudança de saída de turno para invocar um espírito competitivo entre os funcionários.

2. Rácio de Rejeição

No decorrer do processo de produção ocasionalmente é produzido material rejeitado. Minimizar o material rejeitado ajuda a organização a atingir as metas de rentabilidade e por isso é importante identificar o local onde a qualidade ou a não qualidade está a ser produzida dentro dos limites toleráveis.

3. Taxa
Máquinas e processos produzem bens com variadas taxas de produção. Quando a velocidade difere, taxas mais lentas geralmente resultam em lucros ascendentes enquanto velocidades rápidas afetam o controlo da qualidade. Este é o motivo pelo qual é importante existir uma velocidade constante.

4. Objetivos de Produção

Muitas organizações exibem objetivos de produção, taxas e qualidade. Estes KPIs ajudam a manter motivados os colaboradores ao conhecerem os targets específicos da performance desejada.

5. Tempo de Ciclo da Linha

O tempo de ciclo da linha é o tempo total, ou o tempo do ciclo, para concluir uma tarefa. Este valor pode ser o tempo que se demora a produzir determinado produto, embora geralmente diga respeito ao tempo de ciclo específico de determinada operação. Através da exibição dos KPIs, os fabricantes conseguem rapidamente determinar onde está o constrangimento ou o engarrafamento em dado processo.

6. Eficácia Geral do Equipamento

A eficácia geral do equipamento é uma métrica que multiplica a disponibilidade com a performance e a qualidade para determinar a utilização de recursos. A gestão da produção usa quer estes valores (da eficácia geral do equipamento) para gerir a utilização de pessoal disponível face à eficiência da máquina.

7. Tempos Mortos

Quer sejam resultado de avaria ou simplesmente de alterações à máquina, os tempos mortos são considerados uma das mais importantes métricas a medir. Quando as máquinas não estão a operar, perde-se dinheiro pelo que reduzir os tempos mortos são uma forma fácil de aumentar a rendibilidade. As organizações que monitorizam tempos mortos tipicamente necessitam de um operador que introduza um código com a razão da paragem através de um teclado, botão ou leitor de código de barras para que os motivos de paragem mais frequentes sejam revistos no menor espaço de tempo possível.



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